Working Papers


  • Transport Costs: A more realistic approach
    This paper proposes an alternative method to the Iceberg approach for model- ing transport costs. Instead of part of the good evaporating in movement, we take as our basis the idea that certain workers in companies are in productive occupa- tions in the strict sense, and others work in transport. This simple change is found to be capable of overcoming most of the criticisms associated with the Iceberg approach, while being compatible with its standard equation structure.


  • An improvement over the normal distribution for log-growth rates of city sizes: Empirical evidence for France, Germany, Italy and Spain
    We study the decennial log-growth population rate distributions of France (1990- 2009), Germany (1996-2006), Italy (1951-1961, 2001-2011) and Spain (1950- 1960, 2001-2010). It is obtained an excellent parametric description of these log-growth rates by means of a modification of the normal distribution in that the tails are mixed by means of convex linear combinations with exponential distributions, giving rise to the so called “double mixture exponential normal”. The normal distribution is not the one empirically observed for the same datasets.

Published Papers


  • (2015) Granger causality between debt and growth: Evidence from OECD countries -- International Review of Economics and Finance
    This paper analyzes the possible presence of Granger causality between debt and growth in 16 OECD countries from 1980 to 2009. This is done considering not only government debt but also non-financial corporate and household debt. The panel bootstrap Granger causality test applied allows us to control for both the presence of cross-country heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence. Our results barely provide evidence against the null hypothesis according to which government debt does not cause real GDP growth. More interestingly, we find evidence against the absence of causality from non-financial private debt – especially that of households – to growth.


  • (2015) On the parametric description of the French, German, Italian and Spanish city size distributions -- The Annals of Regional Science
    We study the parametric description of the city size distribution of four European countries: France, Germany, Italy and Spain. The parametric models used are the lognormal, the double Pareto lognormal, the normal-Box–Cox and the threshold double Pareto Singh–Maddala (last two of these are defined in this paper). The results are quite regular. The preferred model is always the threshold double Pareto Singh–Maddala in the four countries. However, the dPln is not rejected always for the case of France, and in the case of Italy, the dPln is the runner-up distribution.
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